Critical Facilities & Data Center Design Consideration: Generator Systems Design (1)

May 4th, 2018 02:32 AM

Let's recap the basic concept of mission-critical facilities:-

(1) Uptime Four-Tier Levels
(2) Critical Supply Diagrams and Configurations

The terms “N, N+1 and 2N”, typically refer to the number of power supply and cooling components that comprise the entire data center infrastructure systems. An “N” system is not redundant at all. N+1 and 2N, represent increasing levels of component redundancies and power paths, roughly mapping to the Tiers 2-4.




A paralleled generator system uses two or multiple generators to form a large-capacity generator system. Paralleling multiple generators is achieved by synchronizing the output of the generators and connecting them to a paralleling switchgear (PSG) common bus. Synchronizing the output of the generators requires all of the paralleled generators to have the same voltage, frequency, and phase rotation.

With closed transition back to the utility, PSG will parallel the generators and synchronize the generator output with the utility source for a short duration before transitioning back to utility power. When connecting the generators in parallel or synchronizing with the utility, the following criteria must be met:


Typical parameters that determine synchronization include a voltage difference of less than 5%, a frequency difference of less than 0.2 Hz, and a maximum phase angle of 5 electrical degrees between the sources.

Closed transition is used when it is desirable to transfer loads with zero interruption of power when conditions permit. It is used when the generator system transfers back to the utility and when load testing the generators with building loads. Closed transition can be either a soft load transfer or a make-before-break transfer. The PSG soft-load transfer synchronizes and operates the generators in parallel with the utility and transfers loads in increments between the two sources, thereby minimizing voltage or frequency transients on the generator plant and utility distribution system.




The typical soft-load-transfer overlap time is around 2 seconds. The make-before-break transfer will parallel the generators and perform a transfer of load from the generator to the utility. This can be the transfer of one large block load or the transfer of multiple block loads having time delays between the block loads. Time-delay transfer can either be programmed through the PSG or the downstream automatic transfer switches (ATS). Typical ATS make-before-break transition overlap time is usually less than 100 milliseconds.


To simplify the design of a paralleled generator system, identical generators should be used with the same manufacturer, ratings, type, output rating and alternator pitch.

If paralleling of dissimilar generators is required because of existing onsite conditions, the design of a paralleled generator system becomes much more complex. Each generator configuration must be evaluated and dissimilar components, such as speed control, voltage regulation, and alternator, must be retrofitted to match.

"Pitch" is the term used to define the mechanical design characteristics of the alternator. Paralleling a generator of 2/3-pitch alternator design with a generator of 5/6-pitch alternator design will result in circulating neutral currents. The circulating current will be disruptive to protective device operation and may damage alternators.


Configurations


The electrical loads must be classified into emergency loads, required standby loads, and/or optional standby loads that classified loads are separated, and the generator sets are sized so one generator can serve the emergency and required loads purpose.(see the following Figures)



One generator supplies emergency power to emergency loads, required standby loads and optional standby loads.

Multiple generators in parallel supply power to emergency loads,  required standby loads and optional standby loads.


Kindly note paralleled generator systems that rely on a single master control for signals to start and close to a paralleled bus actually replace one failure point with two, as the master control and the communication link between the master control and the generator systems each represent Single Points of Failure. A well-engineered paralleling system will have dual hot-backup control systems, redundant communication pathways, redundant best battery select dc power supplies, multiple breakers, multiple power pathways, and a well-documented procedure for system recovery whenever a component fails.


Benefits of Parallel Generator Systems


Paralleling multiple sources provides increased reliability, flexibility in load management, and maintenance capabilities with little to no disruption. Multiple generators paralleled to a common bus can better serve emergency and business critical loads, particularly for system response time and dynamic load response once in operation. However, more complex, parallel generator standby systems have significant advantages with respect to reliability and redundancy. These advantages include redundancy, efficiency and ease of maintenance and serviceability.

Redundancy: 

The redundancy inherent in the parallel operation of multiple generators provides greater reliability than a single generator unit for critical loads. If an N+1 configuration is adopted, one generator can be offline for maintenance while serving the required loads. Furthermore, providing a running spare, an N+1 generator configuration will increase the reliability of the generator system from 98% to 99.96% reliability.

Efficiency: 

Variations in power demand can cause a single larger generator to run at loads of less than 30% of capacity. The optimum operational point is between 75% and 80% of its rated value. The paralleling control system can be equipped with a generator load control that can add and remove generators in response to the actual load/demand of the system. If the load changes and demand reach 90% of running capacity, for example, an additional generator can be started, synchronized, and paralleled to the bus with no time delay.

Maintenance and Serviceability:

Maintenance can be performed without interrupting the availability of the generator system because one generator can be removed from the system to undergo scheduled or unplanned maintenance while the other generators are available to supply the loads.



About us

Strategic Media Asia (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of ICT industry and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience.

SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For the other design considerations, please visit 

(1) Site Selection,
(2) Space Planning,
(3) Cooling,
(4) Redundancy,
(5) Fire Suppression,
(6) Meet Me Rooms,
(7) UPS Selection,
(8) Raised Floor,
(9) Code & Standards,
(10) Transformers and Harmonic Distortion,
(11) Multi-mode UPS Systems,
(12) Electrical Rooms,
(13) Generator Systems, etc.

All topics focus on key components and provide technical advice and recommendations for designing a data center and critical facilities.






Learn How to Design Electrical Systems for Mission-Critical Infrastructure (14 - 15 June 2018)

May 1st, 2018 10:54 PM



RELIABILITY & REDUNDANCY MATTER - Your facilities and IT infrastructure are complex that are different from general buildings and require special design and operation knowledge and skill. Understanding the design considerations and avoiding costly downtime are critical.

Subscribe to our Knowledge Blog (http://green-data.blogspot.com or http://data-center-design.tumblr.com), share your view and get monthly readings online. All topics focus on key components and considerations of designing / operating mission-critical facilities and infrastructure:-


(1) Site Selection,
(2) Space Planning,
(3) Cooling,
(4) Redundancy,
(5) Fire Suppression,
(6) Meet Me Rooms,
(7) UPS Selection,
(8) Raised Floor,
(9) Code & Standards,
(10) Transformers and Harmonic Distortion,
(11) Multi-mode UPS Systems,
(12) Electrical Rooms, etc.





Course in Electrical Design for Mission Critical Supply (2-day)
(14 - 15 June 2018, approved CPD course by CIBSE UK)


Mission critical facilities have particular power requirements that significantly impact how they are designed and operated. You will gain insight into the critical supply system, from power components to distributions and efficiency; from power requirements to sizing, design, testing and commissioning:-


-- Concept on primary supply and secondary supply
-- Power flow in mission critical supply system
-- Features of major equipment for critical supply

    > Uninterrupted power supply and power storage
    > Backup generator
    > Automatic transfer switch
    > Static transfer switch
    > Isolation transformer

-- Efficiency assessment
-- Power quality review
-- Configuration diagram of critical supply (N+1 / 2N) design & analysis
-- Review of cable sizing to incorporate harmonics content
-- Earthing system design
-- Testing and commissioning requirements
-- Brief of Systems Merging Appraisal Test (SMAT)


The course details about the power system components that support typical data centers or mission-critical infrastructure. It prepares individual to fully understand the high voltage systems' design & build by exploring the international best practices and the instructors' experience.

All sections are conducted by Chartered Engineers (CEng) who have more than 20 years experience in electrical engineering, project management, sustainable engineering and facility engineering for critical services.


Date: 14 - 15 June 2018 (Thursday - Friday)
Time: 10:00 – 17:30
Venue: 19/F, New Victory House (Officeplus), 103 - 93 Wing Lok Street, Sheung Wan, Hong Kong
(Near Exit A2, Sheung Wan Station)

Fee: Special rate for CIBSE / HKIE all membership classes

For course details, please refer to http://www.stmedia-asia.com/newsletter_6.html.



Enrollment & Registration

Kindly complete and return an Application Form together with a crossed cheque made payable to “Strategic Media Asia Limited” - Room 403, 4th Floor, Dominion Centre, 43 - 59 Queen's Road East, Hong Kong.


About the Organizer

Strategic Media Asia Limited (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE). Our mission is to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for the engineers to exchange professional views and experience on critical infrastructure and data center services.

SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For details, please visit www.stmedia-asia.com/about.html.


Adverse Weather Arrangement - Events in the morning, afternoon or evening will be cancelled if typhoon signal No. 8 or above or black rainstorm warning is still hoisted after (or is announced by the Hong Kong Observatory to be hoisted at / after) 6:00 a.m., 11:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. respectively. Delegates will be notified when the class will be made up as soon as possible.



P.S. Think your team might also be interested? Pass it on >

Strategic Media Asia Limited
Connecting IT, Facilities and Design

T (852) 2117 3893 | F (852) 2184 9978

Room 403, 4th Floor, Dominion Centre, 43 - 59 Queen's Road East, Hong Kong
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Data Center Design Consideration: Electrical Rooms (2)

April 9th, 2018 12:31 AM

So far we have reviewed few types of general interior electrical spaces that factor into new building design in Part (1) - Data Center Design Consideration: Electrical Rooms - Working Spaces, Dedicated Spaces and Main Equipment Rooms.

Let's further explore the considerations of Distribution Pathways and Local/Branch Equipment Rooms when designing MEP spaces.



Distribution Pathways

Distribution pathways are needed for interconnecting all the electrical equipment and end-user devices, and the pathways will affect where rooms are located. Conduits can be routed above the equipment, below ground, or in the ceiling space of the floor below, though overhead conduits need space within the rooms to leave the equipment and transition to the desired route going to other parts of the building (see picture below). The routing of the feeders and how they enter/exit the distribution equipment must be evaluated during design and reconfirmed during the shop drawing review, as this will impact how the equipment is constructed and affect its physical size.



Conduit pathways need to be considered when designing electrical rooms to ensure proper clearances are met and that the distribution is efficient.


Below grade conduit routing needs to be coordinated with other utilities and footing/foundation elements. The restrictions that these place on the routing may impact the layout of the equipment in the room and the size of the space needed. Similarly, beams on the floor above or below the equipment may require an offset of conduit or shifting of the equipment to allow for the conduit installation to effectively occur.

Horizontal pathways can define the placement of electrical rooms, as other building elements may impede these routes and affect installation. Structural beams and large ductwork can become obstacles, especially in tandem with high ceilings. Large-volume spaces like gymnasiums and atriums require extra care as to how conduit will be routed across or around these areas, especially when the entering/exiting pathway would be lower in elevation than the ceiling.

Vertical risers are typically accommodated in either one of two ways—through shafts (pull boxes may be required depending on the height of the building and conduit layout) or stacked electrical closets. Stacked closets allow for the busway or conduits that distribute power throughout the building to be run through these spaces for a more efficient and less expensive installation. If these closets are constructed with 2-hour-rated partitions, the stacked rooms can provide the code-required circuit protection for EPSS feeders and fire alarm circuits without having to rely on more costly wiring methods.


Local/branch Equipment Rooms

A third space type, the local/branch equipment room, is often referred to as an electrical closet (see picture below). Distribution panels, branch circuit panels, and low-voltage transformers are typically located in these spaces and directly serve the end-user loads: lighting, receptacles, and small equipment. Lighting control system panels and devices (and other electrical system devices) are sometimes also located in these rooms. Given the amount of change that occurs in buildings over their lifespan, extra wall space should always be provided in these rooms for future equipment.



The electrical closet is arranged to meet multiple requirements. First, all code clearances have been met. Additionally, it provides a vertical pathway for feeders extending up through the building.


In multistory buildings, these spaces should be stacked. The placement of electrical closets within a building’s footprint is often an item of much debate and discussion with the rest of the design team. The NEC has set restrictions on piping and ductwork routed through these rooms (i.e., dedicated spaces). Conduit needs to be routed out of the room to the floor or area served; minimizing branch circuit lengths help avoid excessive voltage drop and reduce distribution costs. These rooms should be located as close to the center of the area served, with conduits routed out in all directions.

Avoid specific adjacency to other building elements. Often, closets are targeted for location next to mechanical shafts, but the need to get duct-work and/or piping out of these becomes challenging and conflicts with the electrical equipment’s dedicated space. Similarly, locations next to stairs or elevator shafts present other challenges and limit the routing of conduits out of the electrical rooms. Locating electrical rooms next to these, especially if placed between, should be carefully evaluated to ensure there is enough space and flexibility for conduits.


Additional Space Needs

Outside of working- and dedicated-space needs, there are many special considerations for electrical rooms that depend on building programs as well as exterior spaces that will directly impact how the electrical systems are designed. The needs and expectations associated with an office building are very different from that of a data center or hospital with regard to the electrical distribution systems. Redundancy and resiliency are essential for mission critical-type facilities. Flooding due to natural disasters is a key element in determining equipment placement. These equipment should be located above the anticipated flood levels. This ensures ongoing continued operations during and after an event.




Mission critical and safety-critical installations require added redundancy to ensure the continuity of business operations. Redundancy of systems requires more space, as the equipment is separated into different rooms in different parts of the building. Having panels that are part of a redundant distribution arrangement (A and B sources) located adjacent or in close proximity to each other in the same electrical room greatly minimizes the value that the intended redundancy offers. The redundant equipment should be located in separately rated spaces, with the A sources and distribution located apart from the B sources and distribution.





Additional clearance requirements include allowing for future equipment to be moved into a room or allowing for the eventual replacement of that same equipment. While code may only require 3 or 4 ft of clearance in front of a piece of equipment, the physical dimension of the equipment could be larger. Because of this, the only way to effectively remove and reinstall a replacement is to leave an area that is larger than the footprint of the equipment.

Getting equipment from the exterior of a building to its final location may not always be a concern during the initial building construction, but it will certainly be an issue during later time periods of equipment modifications, additions, or replacement. The entire pathway from the building exterior, including doorways, may need to be enlarged due to the height or width of the equipment. If the equipment is located on a floor level that is below- or abovegrade, then area wells, reinforced floors, and a pathway or removable sections of the exterior wall assembly may be required.





Buildings are expected to have a life well beyond the initial install, and yet future growth and conduit installation are rarely considered. This automatically infers change, which will likely come in the form of added equipment and conduit. Initial planning and system design should account for this by including spare breakers, additional distribution sections, and oversized-conduit rack supports.



About us

Strategic Media Asia (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of ICT industry and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience.

SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For the Data Center Design Consideration, please visit 

(1) Site Selection,
(2) Space Planning,
(3) Cooling,
(4) Redundancy,
(5) Fire Suppression,
(6) Meet Me Rooms,
(7) UPS Selection,
(8) Raised Floor,
(9) Code & Standards,
(10) Transformers and Harmonic Distortion,
(11) Multi-mode UPS Systems, and 
(12) Electrical Rooms (I) and (II)

All topics focus on key components and provide technical advice and recommendations for designing a data center and critical facilities.







Critical Infrastructure and Buildings Energy Efficiency Ordinance

April 3rd, 2018 04:52 AM



The Buildings Energy Efficiency Ordinance (BEEO) has come into full operation in Hong Kong since 21 September 2012. There are 3 key requirements of the Ordinance:-

(1) The developers or building owners of newly constructed buildings should ensure that the 4 key types of building services installation therein, namely, air-conditioning installation, lighting installation, electrical installation as well as lift and escalator installation, comply with the design standards of the Building Energy Code (BEC). 
(2) The responsible persons (i.e. owners, tenants or occupiers etc.) in buildings should ensure that the 4 key types of building services installation therein comply with the design standards of the BEC when “ major retrofitting works ” are carried out. 
(3) The owners of commercial buildings (including the commercial portions of composite buildings, e.g. shopping malls under residential storeys) should carry out energy audit for the 4 key types of central building services installation therein in accordance with the Energy Audit Code (EAC) every 10 years.


Mission-critical facilities and data centers are complex that are different from general buildings and require special design and operation knowledge and skill.


Developed by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the 3-day Data Center Energy Practitioner (DCEP) credential program helps engineers to evaluate the energy status and efficiency opportunities in the critical facilities. It also works with engineers to comply with the energy efficiency ordinance anywhere.

Successful candidates who complete the program in 3 days and pass the exams will gain Data Center Practitioner (DCEP) status. Their names and contact information will be available on the official website (http://datacenters.lbl.gov/dcep) as well as the certificates.




Level 1 Practitioners ("Generalist") - Day 1

To have a good understanding of 3 data center disciplines (HVAC - Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, Electrical and IT-equipment) and provide broad recommendations based on the high-level DC Pro (Data Center Profiler) Tools and techniques

- Generalist Training Introduction
- Data Center Profiler (DC Pro) Overview
- IT Equipment
- Air Management
- Cooling Systems
- Electrical Systems
- Assessment Process Manual
- Data Center Profiler (DC Pro) Case Study
- End of Generalist Training / Exam (2-hour, open-book exam)


Level 2 Practitioners ("HVAC-Specialist") - Day 2 & 3

To address HVAC energy opportunities using in-depth Air Management Assessment Tool

- HVAC Specialist Training Introduction
- Air Handlers and Air Conditioners
- Liquid Cooling
- Chilled Water Plants
- Cooling System Controls
- Assessment Process
- Modeling Data Center HVAC Systems
- Environmental Requirements
- Airflow and Temperature Management
- DOE Air Management Tool
- End of HVAC Specialist Training / Exam (3-hour, open-book exam)


Program Speaker

Dr. Bob Sullivan, a Worldwide Eminent Educator and a Data Center Infrastructure Specialist, is the concept creator of Hot Aisle-Cold Aisle. He is the winner of Data Center Dynamics 2016 - Outstanding Contribution to the Data Center Industry Award. TechTarget named Dr. Bob is one of "five people who changed the data center" in August 13, 2010.


Program Details

Date: 16 - 18 May 2018 (Wednesday - Friday)
Time: 09:00 - 18:00
Venue: 19/F, New Victory House (OfficePlus), 103 - 93 Wing Lok Street, Sheung Wan, Hong Kong




Course materials, examinations and applications fees are all included.
For local registration details, please visit www.stmedia-asia.com/data-center-energy-practitioner-dcep.html.



About us

Strategic Media Asia (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of ICT industry and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience.

SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For the Data Center Design Consideration, please visit 

(1) Site Selection,
(2) Space Planning,
(3) Cooling,
(4) Redundancy,
(5) Fire Suppression,
(6) Meet Me Rooms,
(7) UPS Selection,
(8) Raised Floor,
(9) Code & Standards,
(10) Transformers and Harmonic Distortion,
(11) Multi-mode UPS Systems, and 
(12) Electrical Rooms

All topics focus on key components and provide technical advice and recommendations for designing a data center and critical facilities.







Data Center Design Consideration: Electrical Rooms (1)

March 21st, 2018 04:53 AM

Switchboards, switchgear, transformers, generators, and UPSs require space for installation, maintenance, heat dissipation and future expansion (if possible). The wiring, busways, and raceways that distribute the electrical power must be accounted for now or in the future.

Electrical engineers should coordinate with mechanical engineers, architects, structural engineers, and others involved in the design of electrical rooms. Documentation and monitoring of electrical system’s equipment and how it connects to the rest of the facility must be accurately maintained.

We are going to explain the applicable code requirements and evaluate the design criteria for appropriate electrical-room size to accommodate present and future needs. Furthermore, we analyze the requirements for coordinating with structural, architectural, fire protection, and HVAC requirements.


   


Electrical rooms and mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) spaces are often an afterthought when it comes to building design and planning, either relegated to locations that are left over or deemed undesirable for other planning purposes. This shortsightedness can have unfortunate consequences on the cost, operations, and flexibility of the systems for the future.

NFPA 70: National Electrical Code (NEC) dictates the minimum amount of space needed around the equipment for access, operations, safety reasons, and conduit installation. Together, with the actual equipment sizes, this defines the overall minimum dimensional requirements of the room.





There are three types of general interior electrical spaces that factor into new building design: (1) main equipment rooms, (2) distribution pathways, and (3) local/branch equipment rooms. Code-required working space and dedicated space needs must be met. This article will outline important considerations for these spaces in the early stages of building design as they relate to building type, intended occupancy, size, and future expectations of both the building and the electrical systems.


Working Spaces


Let’s see the different between working and dedicated space as stated by the NEC (see picture below). The working space helps safeguard a clear working zone around all equipment and ensures protection for any workers or occupants within the room. This includes defining minimum width, depth, and height requirements for the working space, which varies due to voltage and the specific equipment. The higher the voltage of the equipment, the greater the depth of the working space. The width should be equal to the width of the equipment and no less than 30 in., while allowing for opening any doors or hinged panels to a full 90 deg. The height should be 6 ft 6 in. from the floor, or the height of the equipment if greater than 6 ft 6 in.

The style and construction type of the electrical equipment dictates whether only front access is required, or if rear and/or side access also is required. For each point of access to a piece of equipment, the minimum working clearances must be provided.



The dedicated space (depicted in red) and the working clearances (depicted in blue) are shown in a new emergency distribution room.


Dedicated Spaces


Dedicated space is a zone above the electrical equipment. It’s reserved to provide future access to the electrical equipment, protection of the electrical equipment from foreign systems, and for installing conduit/other raceways supporting incoming and outgoing circuits. The requirement for dedicated space applies primarily to switchgear, switchboards, panelboards, and motor control centers. The space should be equal in width and depth to the equipment size and extend from the floor to a height of 6 ft above the equipment (or to a structural ceiling, whichever is lower). No equipment or systems foreign to the electrical installation are allowed in this zone by the NEC.



The medium-voltage switchgear sections and unit substation transformers in a large data center installation require additional space and clearances.


The area above the dedicated space may contain foreign systems, provided proper protection prevents damage from drips, leaks, or breaks in these systems. However, it’s good practice to avoid having these systems installed in electrical rooms altogether.

While installations of equipment greater than 1,000 V generally follow the same principles, some of the specifics vary, requiring additional clearance around the equipment due to the increased hazard that these voltages impose (see picture above). Access to this equipment is preferably limited to only those deemed qualified to be there. For this reason, electrical equipment should be installed in rooms or spaces that are dedicated for that purpose and have controlled access.


Main Equipment Rooms


The main electrical room, or service entrance space, should coordinate with the local electrical utility. For example, main equipment rooms have requirements that dictate access to the space from the exterior for servicing, maintenance, and service feeder installation. The type of equipment installed will also further determine the room requirements. The service entrance room is typically located on an exterior wall for both code and practical reasons; it makes installation easier and minimizes the length of the service entrance conductors. Because the service conductors are usually the largest in the facility, this can have a substantial impact on cost.

Using arc-resistant switchgear will also impact space needs. This equipment will be taller and may have a larger footprint. Engineers will also need to account for the potential exhaust gases and arc flash energy by providing a pathway to expel them and relieve the pressure buildup from inside the switchgear.

If an exterior transformer is used to provide the service to a building, feeders from the transformer enter the building and transition to the main service entrance disconnect, typically a switchgear, switchboard, or panelboard. These feeders are often routed underground into the building through the exterior foundation wall via a coordinated opening. Additional coordination with the structural engineer is needed to avoid footings.

The elevation of the service entrance conduits many times do not naturally align with the equipment to which it is routed. Additional space in the form of increased height or footprint commonly is required to allow for the successful transition and termination of these conduits and conductors. Service installations that require medium-voltage equipment and/or transformers installed indoors will require additional elements including more space, higher fire ratings of the rooms (per NEC Article 450), and increased ventilation.

The location of any exterior equipment also needs to be coordinated with other architectural and landscaping elements. Minimum separation distances are often dictated by local codes/ordinances or utility requirements for proximity to screen walls, fencing, vegetation, paths of egress, or building fenestration.

Generator installations offer additional challenges when it comes to defining space needs. Noise, odor, and vibration factor into the location of this equipment within a building. The equipment should be located to minimize disturbances to building occupants and adjacent properties. Many jurisdictions have specific requirements on noise emissions, which will impact equipment placement and other components needed to meet requirements. Increasing the distance of this equipment from sensitive areas is one way of dealing with the concerns, but this comes with added feeder costs and may prove to be more costly than other options.

Sound attenuation and equipment required to meet specific emissions requirements, such as diesel oxidation catalyst, particulate filters, urea tanks, and selective catalytic reduction units, have significant cost implications and require a large amount of space to install.

Tier 4 versus Tier 2 compliance is usually dictated by an owner’s desire to use a generator for utility peak shaving or other non-critical proposes. It is crucial to have a clear understanding of current and future implications in both of these areas from the outset of a project and to discuss them thoroughly with the building owner.

The weight of a generator and the vibration experienced during its operation will have an impact on the building’s structural design. Generators require a lot of ventilation for cooling and combustion needs; getting air into and out of the room is critical and will impact placement.

With regard to fuel storage, most installations require a volume of fuel that dictates an external fuel tank with interconnecting fuel lines. NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) limits the overall capacity of diesel fuel inside buildings to 660 gal. The relationship of the exterior tank and the generator is also important to minimize pumping requirements and allow for gravity-drain return-fuel piping. This requires the fuel tank to be lower in elevation than the generator.

Direct access to the outside is preferable for maintenance and testing. All of this requires close coordination with the architectural, structural, and mechanical disciplines.

NFPA 110: Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems requires the emergency power supply for Level 1 installations to be installed in a separate room, separated from the rest of the building by 2-hour fire-rated construction. While NFPA 110 does allow the emergency power supply system equipment (EPSS; equipment consists of all components from the emergency power supply, or EPS, to the load terminals of the transfer switches) to be installed in the same room as the EPS, it is good practice to keep these separated to help enhance system resiliency. EPS rooms are also prone to additional dust, moisture, temperature fluctuations, and excessive noise during operation that limits the ability to have a conversation and may have a negative impact on other equipment if co-located.

For mission-critical facilities (e.g., financial institutions, data centers, and airports) and other highly sensitive installations, the use of a dry-type, pre-action, or another type of fire protection system that does not rely on a normally wet piping installation is highly recommended. In cold climates, this has an added advantage of preventing pipes from freezing, rupturing, and potentially flooding the EPS room.


Continue Reading: Part (2) - Data Center Design Consideration: Electrical Rooms


About us

Strategic Media Asia (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of ICT industry and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience.

SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For the Data Center Design Consideration, please visit 

(1) Site Selection,
(2) Space Planning,
(3) Cooling,
(4) Redundancy,
(5) Fire Suppression,
(6) Meet Me Rooms,
(7) UPS Selection,
(8) Raised Floor,
(9) Code & Standards,
(10) Transformers and Harmonic Distortion,
(11) Multi-mode UPS Systems, and 
(12) Electrical Rooms

All topics focus on key components and provide technical advice and recommendations for designing a data center and critical facilities.





Purchase your Manuals for critical facilities design from Amazon

March 1st, 2018 12:35 AM

Reliability & Redundancy Matter - Understanding the mission-critical facilities design and avoiding costly downtime by our high quality training courses and credential programs.

Data Center and Critical Facilities Design Courses and Syllabus   Data Center and Critical Facilities Design Courses and Syllabus


Budget concern? Being occupied by other tasks and unable to take the courses? Why don't consider to purchase your design manuals which are currently available on the Amazon for self-learning and reference. You are still able to gain the knowledge of best practices in data center / critical infrastructure design, operations and efficiency:-


Electrical Design for Mission Critical Supply
http://www.amazon.com/dp/9887797219


HVAC Design and Cooling for Data Center Efficiency
http://www.amazon.com/dp/9887797200


Project Management for Data Center & Critical Facilities: From Design to Commissioning
http://www.amazon.com/dp/9887797227



    
    


  
  
  



Each manual listed above is edited by a team of Chartered Engineers (CEng) who have more than 20 years experience in data center design & build, building services engineering, facilities management and energy conservation in the private and public sectors. All of them prepare you to face most of the challenges in data centers and critical facilities of any size, in any location.

All manuals have been fully taken into account the requirements of international codes and standards such as TIA-942, ASHRAE, Uptime Institute, etc. For any hesitation, you are most welcome to contact our team. Thank you.



About us

Strategic Media Asia (SMA) provides an interactive environment and opportunities for members of engineers to exchange professional views and experience on critical infrastructure and electrical and mechanical facilities through various training courses and site tour events.


In addition, our team is one of the CPD Course Providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE).



For details, please visit http://www.stmedia-asia.com/trainings.html.







Site Tour for Critical Infrastructure in February 9, 2018

February 12th, 2018 05:30 AM

A BIG thank you to the participants and the coordination granted by the China Unicom (Hong Kong) Global Center in Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate (TKO). The site tour was successfully completed. The interaction and feedback created enable all of us to share the experience on the mission-critical infrastructure (Tier III+ / Tier IV ready) and the data center services.




China Unicom Global Limited ("CUG"), headquarter in Hong Kong, with 31 worldwide subsidiaries and offices, and 107 overseas Point-of-Presences (PoPs) in 70 countries/regions, CUG endeavors on global business development, operation and servicing outside Mainland China.







Leveraging on China Unicom’s extensive global network coverage, CUG is providing reliable end-to-end global integrated telecommunication services and solutions including




For details, please visit www.chinaunicomglobal.com.


About the organizer

Strategic Media Asia (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of ICT industry and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience.

SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For the Data Center Design Consideration, please visit 

(1) Site Selection,
(2) Space Planning,
(3) Cooling,
(4) Redundancy,
(5) Fire Suppression,
(6) Meet Me Rooms,
(7) UPS Selection,
(8) Raised Floor,
(9) Code & Standards,
(10) Transformers and Harmonic Distortion, and
(11) Multi-mode UPS Systems

All topics focus on key components and provide technical advice and recommendations for designing a data center and critical facilities.






Learn Energy Audit for Mission-Critical Infrastructure (Program Developed by the U.S. Department of Energy)

February 6th, 2018 05:30 AM

Energy Monitoring?
Efficiency Improvement?
A comprehensive strategy to evaluate your critical infrastructure?




The data center industry and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partnered to develop a Data Center Energy Practitioner (DCEP) program which certifies energy practitioners to evaluate the energy status and efficiency opportunities in the mission-critical infrastructure worldwide.




The DCEP curriculum was updated in 2016 and formed collaboration with the industry to reinforce proven best practices and to introduce new tools and techniques in key areas such as IT equipment, air management, cooling systems, and electrical systems:-

Level 1 Practitioners ("Generalist", Day 1) will be expected to have a good understanding of 3 data center disciplines (HVAC - Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, Electrical and IT-equipment) for providing broad recommendations based on the high-level DC Pro (Data Center Profiler) Tools.

Level 2 Practitioners ("HVAC-Specialist", Day 2 & 3) address HVAC energy opportunities using in-depth Air Management Assessment Tool.

Successful candidates who complete the 3-day program and pass the exams will gain Data Center Practitioner (DCEP) status by listing their names and contact information on the official website (http://datacenters.lbl.gov/dcep) as well as issuing certificates.


Level 1 Practitioners ("Generalist") - Day 1

- Generalist Training Introduction
- Data Center Profiler (DC Pro) Overview
- IT Equipment
- Air Management
- Cooling Systems
- Electrical Systems
- Assessment Process Manual
- Data Center Profiler (DC Pro) Case Study
- End of Generalist Training / Exam (2-hour, open-book exam)


Level 2 Practitioners ("HVAC-Specialist") - Day 2 & 3

- HVAC Specialist Training Introduction
- Air Handlers and Air Conditioners
- Liquid Cooling
- Chilled Water Plants
- Cooling System Controls
- Assessment Process
- Modeling Data Center HVAC Systems
- Environmental Requirements
- Airflow and Temperature Management
- DOE Air Management Tool
- End of HVAC Specialist Training / Exam (3-hour, open-book exam)

 
Official syllabus and program rundown -
http://datacenters.lbl.gov/resources/dcep-typical-training-agenda



Program Speaker

Dr. Bob Sullivan, a Worldwide Eminent Educator and a Data Center Infrastructure Specialist, is the concept creator of Hot Aisle-Cold Aisle. He is the winner of Data Center Dynamics 2016 - Outstanding Contribution to the Data Center Industry Award. TechTarget named Dr. Bob one of "five people who changed the data center" in August 13, 2010.


Exam and Certification

The Level 1 and Level 2 exams are open-book with multiple-choice questions following the training sessions. The result is either Pass or Fail. The passing score is 75%. There is a waiting period of 30 days to retake the exam(s).


Prerequisites to Gain the DCEP Designation (Level 2)

- 4 year technical degree with 3 years verifiable critical facilities design/operation experience; or
- 2 year technical degree with 6 years verifiable critical facilities design/operation experience; or
- 10 years verifiable critical facilities design/operation experience; and
- Completion of the 3-day instructor-led training; and
- Pass the exams of Level 1 and Level 2


Enrollment Details

Date: 16 - 18 May 2018 (Wednesday - Friday)
Time: 09:00 - 18:00
Venue: 19/F, New Victory House (OfficePlus), 103 - 93 Wing Lok Street, Sheung Wan, Hong Kong
Official Rate (3-day): US$2,900 (HK$22,800) per head


Course materials (in digital copy), examinations and applications fees are all included.
For enrollment and registration, please visit www.stmedia-asia.com/data-center-energy-practitioner-dcep.html.


Applications can be submitted online or by email. The copies of degree certificate(s) and projects / work experience / reference letters will be requested by the official Program Administrator (PA) in U.S.


"ANCIS Incorporated" is the Program Lead and authorised trainer of the Data Center Energy Practitioner (DCEP) program and "Strategic Media Asia Limited" is the approved program partner in Hong Kong for local administration.

Adverse Weather Arrangement - Events in the morning, afternoon or evening will be cancelled if typhoon signal No. 8 or above or black rainstorm warning is still hoisted after (or is announced by the Hong Kong Observatory to be hoisted at / after) 6:00 a.m., 11:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. respectively. Delegates will be notified when the class will be made up as soon as possible.


P.S. Think your team might also be interested? Pass it on ›


Strategic Media Asia Limited
Connecting IT, Facilities and Design

T (852) 2117 3893  |  F (852) 2184 9978

Room 403, 4th Floor, Dominion Centre, 43 - 59 Queen's Road East, Hong Kong
http://www.stmedia-asia.com  |  http://green-data.blogspot.com








(15th Round) Preparatory Course to Become a Registered Specialist Contractor (Ventilation Works) - RSC(V)

February 5th, 2018 03:13 AM

Further to the data center & critical facilities design courses, the team is going to launch a preparatory course which helps engineers / enterprises to facilitate compliance with the Buildings Ordinance and to become a Registered Contractors in Ventilation Works in Hong Kong.

Last update on 13 May 2018

Preparatory Course to Become a Register of Specialist Contractors
(Sub-register of Ventilation Works Category) - RSC (V)

15th Round

Date: 15 and 22 September 2018 (Saturday)
Time: 9:00 - 13:00 / 13:30
Venue: HKBU School of Continuing Education (SCE), 136A Nathan Road, Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Exit B1, Tsim Sha Tsui Station or Exit D, Jordan Station)



The course is designed for ventilation and air-conditioning engineering company's Technical Director (TD), Authorized Signatory (AS) or other officers successfully becoming a registered specialist contractor (ventilation works category).



Please refer to the Practice Note for Registered Contractors (Appendix F) issued by the Buildings Department for the Requirements (1 to 3) on Qualifications and Experience for Registration as a Specialist Contractor (RSC) in the Ventilation Works Category (Alternative Requirement 4 and 5 are no longer accepted).



Participants will familiarize themselves with the interview technique, application strategies, Buildings Ordinance, ventilation and fire safety regulations, occupational safety and health and environmental protection, ventilation / air-conditioning specialized knowledge, etc. within short time and up to a professional standards of ventilation engineer.


For syllabus and content, please visit our website:

Course Details (Chinese) or 
Course Details (English)

Please download the preparatory course's application form at http://www.stmedia-asia.com/images/aircon.pdf






About SMA

Strategic Media Asia (SMA), a critical infrastructure training and event organizer, provides an interactive environment and opportunities for members of engineers to exchange professional views and experience on critical infrastructure and electrical and mechanical facilities.

In addition, SMA is one of the CPD Course Providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE).

For other data center design and critical facilities courses, please visit our website at http://www.stmedia-asia.com/trainings.html.


  



註冊專門承建商(通風系統工程類別)預備課程


課程簡介

專門為通風及冷氣工程公司的關鍵人士:技術董事 (TD) 、獲授權簽署人 (AS) 或其他高級人員 (OO) 而設計,旨在幫助公司順利申請成為註冊專門承建商(通風系統工程類別)。

學員將會在短時間內熟習面試要點、建築物條例、通風及消防法例、職業安全健康與環保、通風及冷氣的專門 知識,並達至通風及冷氣工程師的專業水準。



關鍵人士的最低資格和經驗規定 〈 第 1、2 或 3 項 〉,可參考屋宇署網頁 《 註冊承建商作業備考 38 》- 附錄 F 〈註:現時已不接受 4 或 5 項的資格及經驗。〉



修讀條件

對相關註冊及考核事宜有興趣者均可參加。



修讀內容

- 一般建築承建商和專門承建商的註冊事宜
- 註冊承建商作業備考 (PNRC)
- 通告函件
- 香港法例第 123 章建築物條例
- 香港法例第 123J 章建築物(通風系統)規例
- 香港法例第 132CE 章附表所列處所通風設施規例
- 香港法例第 95 章消防條例
- 防火閘、過濾器及聚塵器實務
- 通風 / 空氣調節控制系統實務
- 年檢證書
- 職業安全健康與環保
- 面試技巧



課程資料

日期:2018 年 9 月 15 日 及  9 月 22 日 ( 星期六 )
時間:9:00 - 13:00 / 13:30 (每節 4 - 4.5 小時, 合共約 8 - 9 小時)
地點:香港浸會大學持續教育學院 - 香港九龍彌敦道 136 號 A 
( 尖沙咀 地鐵站 B1 出口 / 佐敦 地鐵站 D 出口 )



對象:通風及冷氣工程公司的技術董事 (TD) 、獲授權簽署人 (AS) 或其他高級人員 (OO), 以協助公司順利申請成為註冊專門承建商(通風系統工程類別)

授課語言:粵語 (輔以 中 / 英文講義)
報名表格:按此下載 或瀏覽課程網頁 (http://www.stmedia-asia.com/aircon.html)


了解其他 關鍵設施專業課程



主講導師

Ir Edmund Fok
BEng(Hons), MSc, PFM, REA, RSO, CEnv, CEng, FCIBSE, FSOE, FIPlantE, MHKIE

擁有二十多年豐富冷氣通風、消防、水務、電力及建築工程經驗及十多年教學經驗,並是註冊專門 承建商 (通風系統工程) 獲授權簽署人、第 1 , 2 & 3 級註冊消防裝置承辦商合資格人士、一級水喉匠、註冊電業工程人員 (級別: C0 H0)、註冊小型工程承建商獲授權簽署人和註冊能源效益評核員。 



主辦機構

Strategic Media Asia Limited (SMA)

由多位經驗豐富的英國註冊工程師組成,榮獲 英國屋宇裝備工程師學會 (CIBSE) 認可,提供持續專業發展短期課程 / 進修時數 (Approved CPD Course Provider),定期舉辦不同程度的關鍵設施課程、專業研討會及論壇,旨在提供合適的交流機會予機電工程師、屋宇裝備工程師、通訊及資訊科技界專業人士等等,同時提供關鍵設施及數據中心設計技術及知識。

詳情可瀏覽  www.stmedia-asia.com 。







Electrical System Design - Grounded or Ungrounded?

January 12th, 2018 12:24 AM

Further to the discussion of Earthing & Grounding for UPS System, we are going to explore different cases making mistakes to ground everything by default which creates parallel paths and are strictly prohibited!


We all note that ungrounded electrical systems are not often employed due to real and perceived safety concerns. Predominately, commercial systems are solidly grounded (SG). SG systems are characterized by high line-to-ground fault current with reliance on quick overcurrent protection to limit the release of dangerous energy.

Alternatives to an SG system include low-resistance grounding (LRG), reactance grounding (RG), and high-resistance grounding (HRG). LRG or RG systems are recommended on medium-voltage systems to limit fault currents while overcurrent protection operates. HRG systems, which limit the fault current to a small value, were adopted by the mission critical data centers. Onsite power generation and uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems are used extensively where equipment costs can be justified against the losses due to business continuity interruptions:-




The picture shows an UPS installed in a typical equipment room with associated switchgear. This is a good illustration where the user is planning for future growth of the UPS, and has allowed space for additional modules to add capacity or redundancy.


Transformerless UPS systems are preferred due to efficiency savings, lower thermal heat rejection, and a smaller footprint as compared with transformer-based UPS systems. These transformerless systems have been introduced in the past decade and are commonly employed on a large scale for data centers and critical manufacturing processes. For domestic, medium- to large-scale applications, engineers are specifying UPS distribution as a 480 V, 3-wire system with 208 V power distribution units (PDUs) at the point of connection. A PDU or isolation transformer is provided when single-phase loads are served. A neutral is not required or advised for this system until single-phase loads are required:-




This 3-wire UPS system depicts an ungrounded zone. Ungrounded operation occurs during battery discharge when the UPS isolates the incoming source.


For smaller systems, such as a 208/120 V UPS input source, a 4-wire system may be specified (see the following figure). Systems in both figures operate ungrounded during an event where power is lost. Whether a short circuit is flowing through the neutral or grounding conductor when the UPS is providing power, transistors in the UPS rectifier isolate the input power, opening the supply circuit and interrupting the return path:-



This 4-wire UPS system depicts an ungrounded zone. Ungrounded operation occurs during battery discharge when the UPS isolates the incoming source.


For applications that can’t tolerate an ungrounded zone within the electrical distribution system, an isolation transformer inside the UPS is an option. Without an isolation transformer, there is no safe way to connect the direct-current source to ground without introducing a parallel return path. With transformerless applications being the leading choice in the industry, it is important for engineers to mitigate and understand the risks of operating an ungrounded system during power transfer.

Careful application of grounding continues to rank No. 1 in safety priority. It is a mistake to ground everything by default. Grounding duplication creates parallel paths, which is strictly prohibited for neutral conductors.

By design, when connecting exposed metal cabinets and conduit to the grounding system, there are many parallel paths to the source. However, properly grounded systems are only connected once at the source. A grounded conductor is provided to intentionally return unbalanced current back to the source. These grounded conductors are separated from the grounding system to avoid a parallel return path. Most important, the isolation of a grounded conductor from grounding keeps these intended and unintended exposed metal paths from carrying current under normal conditions.

For critical applications, redundant components along with alternative utility and standby sources are normal practices. These separately derived systems are grounded at the source and interconnected by transfer-switch schemes. Grounding interconnection is required and care must be taken to avoid hazards, such as not being able to isolate a ground fault or circulating ground currents. Where 4-wire sources are required, auto-transfer schemes must consider switching the neutral.



About us

Strategic Media Asia (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of ICT industry and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience.

SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For the Data Center Design Consideration, please visit 

(1) Site Selection,
(2) Space Planning,
(3) Cooling,
(4) Redundancy,
(5) Fire Suppression,
(6) Meet Me Rooms,
(7) UPS Selection,
(8) Raised Floor,
(9) Code & Standards,
(10) Transformers and Harmonic Distortion, and
(11) Multi-mode UPS Systems

All topics focus on key components and provide technical advice and recommendations for designing a data center and critical facilities.